123.According to a sociological survey on language issues.
123.According to a sociological survey on language issues.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Ukraine had the experience of meeting the demands of the population related to their ethnic origin. The majority of ethnic minorities in Ukraine are part of ethnic groups whose core is outside Ukraine and which have ethnopolitical organisms (states) of the same name.
The ethnic renaissance of different ethnic groups is characterized by two features that must be taken into account in ethnopolitics. This process is influenced by the course of the ethno-political renaissance of Ukrainians and the formation of those independent states within which the core of the respective ethnic group is located. In an effort to meet the needs of the Ukrainian renaissance, the Ukrainian state must coordinate its efforts with the ethnopolitics of states for which ethnic minorities are a kind of diaspora.
It is primarily about creating opportunities for free exchange of people and information with members of their ethnic group outside Ukraine. Under these conditions, integration into the Ukrainian environment can take place without conflicts, which will testify to the high level of democracy in our country.
It should be borne in mind that in the wake of the ethnic renaissance, «ethnic nationalism» may emerge, and the leaders who profess it often advocate the creation of territorial autonomies, and sometimes even separation. Here it is important not to equate the desire to obtain conditions for comprehensive ethnocultural development with the fueling of political hysteria.
By the way, the polyethnicity of all regions of Ukraine gives grounds for choosing one of the two possibilities to most fully meet the needs of ethnic minorities — on a territorial and personal basis. Certain hints at the implementation of such a policy model have recently been noticed in our socio-political life. In this connection, we can mention the adoption by the parliament of the law on national minorities.
Ethnic factors of consolidation in the formation of the Ukrainian political nation are extremely important in the process of building a democratic society, which will equally meet the national and cultural needs of all ethnic groups, overcome alienation at the level of these communities and at the personal level.
The main ethnic factors in the consolidation of the Ukrainian polyethnic society are the following: the formation of the Ukrainian political nation; common social and ethnic interests of the Ukrainian nation and the interests of other ethnic groups in building an independent state; development of languages, cultures of ethnic groups; unity of Ukrainian and Russian components in the ethnic structure of Ukraine and ensuring the welfare of ethnic groups; creation of the concept of ethnic harmony; development of ethnic identification and self-identification, unity of social and ethnic in the national.
Based on the polyethnicity of the population, taking into account the traditions of peaceful coexistence on its territory of different ethnic, cultural, linguistic groups, Ukraine has set a course for the formation of a multicultural society. The national identity of its members is not based on ethnicity, but on the principles of territorial patriotism and ethnic pluralism.
Mukomel V. Demographic consequences of ethnic and regional conflicts // Sociological research. — 1999. — No. 6. — P. 69.Braychevska O. Repatriates in Ukraine: ways of integration // Problems of migration. — 1999. — № 3. — P. 34. Fukuyama F. Commentary on the essay by G. Nodia «Nationalism and Democracy» // Friendship of Peoples. — 1994. — No. 5. — P. 123. According to a sociological survey on language problems. — Kyiv Center for Political Studies. — 2002 Government Courier. — 2000. — August 15. Government courier. — 2002 .— December 28.
The impact of e-democratization on the political participation of Ukrainian citizens. Abstract
The goal of e-democratization in Ukraine is the desire to make all branches of government open to every citizen, which will provide him with more opportunities for active political participation. The government’s use of new technologies in political relations, which involve more citizens in governance processes, may be one of the possible mechanisms for its legitimation.
The formation of the information society raises many issues related to the functioning of the political system. The most relevant are the prospects for the formation of e-democracy, e-government, changes in the nature, forms and quality of citizen participation in political processes.
In Ukraine, the problems of e-democratization are discussed quite intensively by scientists both in special scientific investigations and in the pages of periodicals [4 — 6; 8; 9; 12; 19; 35; 36]. The discussion, however, revolves mainly around the problem of implementing the national program «Electronic Ukraine», in particular on the creation and effective functioning of e-government and a system of effective e-government. The purpose of this article is to assess the nature and prospects of transformation of the main forms of political participation of citizens under the influence of the latest information technologies and resources used by the government.
The term e-democracy was first proposed by scientists in the United States and Great Britain, and it quickly became widespread in scientific circles [39, p. XII]. E-democracy is usually understood as the use of «new information technologies to protect and develop basic democratic values and, above all, the participation of citizens in decision-making processes by the authorities, ie — involvement in the political process. This participation should be organized so that citizens feel own involvement in policy and effectiveness of efforts «. The interpretation of e-democracy as the use of «information and communication technologies and information structure (ICT) for the development and strengthening of democratic institutions and the expansion of citizen participation in social and political activities is quite common.
ICT opportunities are used in the range from informing about various candidates for elected positions and parties to participation in electronic forums, in electronic voting (e-voting) and in electronic elections (e-elections) «[10, p.12]. Fuchs and M. Kaase believe that the term e-democracy should primarily refer to the «technological aspect» in the sense that modern democracy has changed or may change through the network influence of citizens, organizations and institutions through the electronic communication system. the democratic process should ultimately be assessed on a number of parameters, including (1) ensuring more effective policy decisions and (2) increasing democratic legitimacy in terms of citizens’ approval and support of the democratic regime «[cited in 23].
With the deployment of democratization in the post-Soviet space, the category of electronic democratization was proposed for scientific circulation, the content of which is defined as the use of Internet technologies to «1) expand voter and media access to lawmaking; 2) reduce costs in forming associations and associations of voters; 3) increase the effectiveness of feedback between voters and their representatives in the legislature «[2, p. 155].
Thus, the core of the concept of e-democracy is the idea of expanding forms of political participation through the use of electronic means by citizens and narrowing the government’s capacity to use mobilization practices. In particular, M. Vershinin emphasizes that «political participation is a central issue in discussions around e-democracy» [3, p. 17] both in stable traditional democracies and in transitional societies. For the latter, the most debatable should probably be considered the problem of effective assimilation by citizens of new opportunities for political participation, which will be provided to them by the resources of e-democracy.
Against the background of positive trends in the wider involvement of citizens in political processes (compared to the previous stage of democracy), the opinions of skeptical scholars are interesting. Thus, K. Gil and J. Hughes, assessing the prospects of increasing the political activity of citizens who have the opportunity to join the online audience in discussing political issues, note that «… The Internet does not change people, it only allows them to do the same, but by -other … Contrary to utopian notions, the Internet, its development is unlikely to turn disinterested, uninformed, indifferent citizens into interested, informed and active cybercitizens «[40, p. 157].
We will add that online political activity does not mean such activity in the real political process, but it can increase the level of political competence.
The process of formation of e-democracy covers five main stages, at each of which the imagination is formed and new opportunities for citizen participation in the political process are mastered:
The stage of the emergence of web presence is associated with the emergence of institutional policy actors in electronic network structures in order to disseminate political information among citizens. The stage of promoting a web presence involves citizens receiving constantly updated information about the activities and policy proposals of institutional policy actors. At this stage, citizens have the opportunity to comment on the activities of government institutions, evaluate them and send suggestions for improving the effectiveness of political governance. The stage of interactive web presence is marked by the intensification of interaction between citizens and government agencies. In particular, citizens have the opportunity to receive the necessary documents, sign them, make an appointment with officials of various levels, participate in electronic meetings, rallies, etc. The stage of transactional web presence is more focused on meeting the daily needs of citizens, because within it they have the opportunity to receive various documents and enter into agreements. The stage of full integration of the web presence involves the completion of e-democracy, which will allow the implementation of electoral forms of political participation through electronic networks, participate in online public forums, meetings of government and administration. It is this stage that emphasizes the growing network political activity of citizens [31, p. 401 — 402].
In Western Europe, the participation of citizens in election campaigns is becoming quite common in the online system, which provides, in addition to the traditional, four new forms, in particular — the marketing of party politics and candidates; exchange of information and opinions between voters; participation in the discussion of print and online media materials; participation in the formation of a new, more open style of politics [38, p. 681; 11, p. 105].