In the last 100 years alone, the average annual temperature has risen by at least 0.3-0.6 ° C.
In the last 100 years alone, the average annual temperature has risen by at least 0.3-0.6 ° C.
This understanding gives rise to the idealization of the past way of life, underlies the slogan «back to nature». The reason for this dogma — uncritical attitude to history, poor knowledge of its real facts. Throughout its existence, mankind has faced and more or less successfully solved environmental problems. The difference between our period of history is that these problems have become global.
Dogma 3. In the future we can completely solve environmental problems. This optimistic position was formed under the influence of advertising the achievements of STP, its potential. It is borne in mind that any achievement of technology along with the beneficial effect gives a side effect, the environmental impact of which is initially unpredictable. For example, even the cleanest energy — solar — gives a by-product in the form of thermal pollution, so it also has ecological limits of its development.
Conclusion: the destruction of the dogmas of ecological consciousness, the formation of scientifically verified ecological imperative in the minds of everyone is a necessary condition for human survival.
All of the above, in essence, means posing the problem of the need for a qualitatively new type of civilizational development, which should replace modern civilization and further development of a global strategy for its implementation. Not to «hide» in anticipation, giving up all the achievements of STP, not to «return to nature» in the primitive sense of this call, but to rise to a qualitatively new level of nature and society, to ensure their stability, balanced mutual development.
Problems. Problems. Problems. They affect the interests of humanity as a whole. Recognition of environmental interest as a priority over political, economic and military corresponds to universal values, ie higher values of life and culture. Thus ecology is organically connected with morality; protection of nature, protection of the environment — with humanity. The ancient principle of «ahimsa» as a principle of reverence for life, is the defining basis in the relationship of Man, Society and Nature as a human habitat.
The global environmental crisis. Abstract
The concept of ecology. Global warming. The essence of the greenhouse effect. Causes of the greenhouse effect, its factors. Forecasts for the effects of global warming on Earth. Consequences of warming for Ukraine. Ways to solve environmental problems
«Oikos» — from the Greek — «house, dwelling» «logos» — «word». Hence — «ecology»: «a word about home». Ecology is not an abstract concept, not remote catastrophes and cataclysms, but everything that surrounds us, which is relevant to everyone, — the problems of our environment.
You can live without many achievements of scientific and technological progress. It is impossible to live without nature, clean air, non-poisoned food and water. It is possible to keep the planet fit for human life only if every inhabitant of the planet understands a simple truth: «The attitude to nature is not immediately measured on a global scale — to forests, water, land. In this attitude there is always an intermediate stage — my attitude to one a single tree, to a liter of clean water, to a handful of fertile land … By protecting one thing, we … contribute to the preservation of nature as a whole «(V. Danilov).
Ukraine, like each of its regions, has its own, unique face, which is determined by nature, relief, soils, vegetation, rivers and lakes. Nature affects the economic activities and worldview of people, their beliefs, customs, traditions and way of life. It is associated with various rituals, beliefs and numerous holidays, such as mermaids, Green Holidays, Ivan Kupala and others. The culture of any nation, including Ukrainians, cannot be understood without referring to the history of the development of its relationship with nature — the only and irreplaceable source of material and spiritual goods.
Once our ancestors lived in complete harmony with nature and were an integral part of it. The ancestors had a cult of nature and its deification. Even trees and grass they perceived as something alive. Ancestors — pagans worshiped the Sun, Moon, Fire, Water, Wind, Thunder and Lightning and other natural forces of nature. For centuries, grandfathers and great-grandfathers adored their native land, watered it not only with sweat but also with blood, and protected the fields like the apple of an eye. Improving technique and technology, mankind has made many scientific discoveries. On the one hand, this has led to an increase in the well-being of people in many countries, on the other — has created serious problems.
In recent years, we have noticed global warming. Summers are getting hotter and winters are getting softer. Scientists have noticed that in the last 100-130 years, our atmosphere has noticeably warmed and this process continues inexorably, the average temperature stubbornly creeps up. In the last 100 years alone, the average annual temperature has risen by at least 0.3-0.6 ° C.
Global warming is explained by the so-called greenhouse effect. Its essence is as follows. The Earth receives energy from the Sun mainly in the visible part of the spectrum, and itself, because it is a much colder body, emits into space mainly infrared rays. But many gases in the atmosphere — water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and others — are transparent to visible rays, but actively absorb infrared, thus retaining in the atmosphere part of the heat that they would have to give into space. Thus, the temperature on the Earth’s surface is kept at a level suitable for life.
By trapping heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, these gases create an effect called the greenhouse, and the gases the greenhouse.
The greenhouse effect has existed since the atmosphere on our planet. The greenhouse effect is not in itself a negative phenomenon. Without the greenhouse effect, the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere would be on average 30 degrees lower than the existing one, and the Earth’s surface would be only 18 ° C. This means the absence of living conditions, because water on the earth’s surface would exist only in the form of ice.
People increase the greenhouse effect due to emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O and other gases. In the last century, as a result of human activity, the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by more than a quarter, methane — 2.5 times. Over the last 100 years, the contribution of CO2 to total emissions has been approximately 66%. Since the 1980s, the contribution of carbon dioxide to global warming has become less significant. New greenhouse substances have also emerged, website that writes your lab reports primarily chlorofluorocarbons, including the well-known CFCs.
Over the last 20 years, the contribution of CO2 to total greenhouse gas emissions is about 50%, CH4 — 18%, N2O — 6%, chlorofluorocarbons — 14% of the total contribution to global warming.
There are 6 main greenhouse gases that are part of the chemical composition of the atmosphere:
water vapor; carbon dioxide; methane; ozone; nitrous oxide and, more recently, chlorofluorocarbons. Apart from them, all other greenhouse gases occur in nature.
Carbon dioxide CO2 is the most significant of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Although this gas is of natural origin, due to human activity it is formed in the largest quantities.
Industrialization has led to an increase in the use of fuels extracted from the bowels of the Earth: coal, oil, gas (fossil fuels). When they burn, a large amount of CO2 is emitted. The largest emissions of carbon dioxide occur in the transport and production of electricity and heat. Other sources of CO2 emissions:
chemical industrial processes; forestry and land use change.
In Ukraine, 95% of all CO2 emissions are generated during the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels. Of the industrial processes, the most significant contribution to CO2 emissions is made by cement production. Ukraine ranks 10th in the world in terms of CO2 emissions.
Forests, oceans and soils absorb CO2, maintaining a balance between the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and in water and soil. But human activity has a negative impact on this balance.
Methane CH4 is produced in large quantities as a result of biological transformations in nature. Estimates of the world’s annual natural methane sources and effluents are estimated at about 500 million tons.
Natural sources of atmospheric methane are:
anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in biological systems (swamps, tundra); digestion of wood by termites by decomposition of cellulose into methane; oceans, seas and freshwaters.
The main anthropogenic sources of methane emissions are:
growing rice on very moist lands; intestinal fermentation of animals and decomposition of animal waste; municipal solid waste schedule; extraction and transportation of coal, natural gas and oil.
Since 1990, the largest contribution to methane emissions in Ukraine is made by the energy sector — about 65%, and a lot of methane is emitted from agricultural production and waste disposal.
Methane is a by-product of biomass combustion and incomplete fuel combustion.
Methane absorbers are soils and chemical transformations in the atmosphere.
Natural sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide N2O — oceans, soils of tropical and temperate latitudes, forests and meadows. For example, the N2O content in soils is the result of the activity of soil bacteria. Anthropogenic sources of nitrous oxide emissions are:
agricultural tillage, especially the use of nitrogen fertilizers; burning of fossil natural fuel; production of adipic (nylon) and nitric acids; biomass combustion.
According to 1990 data, the largest contribution to anthropogenic N2O emissions in Ukraine is made by municipal waste disposal — 43%. The chemical industry and energy also make significant contributions to nitrous oxide emissions.
The highest concentration of ozone O3 is in the upper atmosphere, where the so-called ozone layer is formed. The damage caused to this layer is a cause for concern. Ozone is also a greenhouse gas. Ozone enters the lower atmosphere (troposphere) as a result of chemical transformations of oxygen in the presence of light and some chemicals, mainly of anthropogenic nature. Due to complex chemical reactions in the dense layers of the atmosphere, some substances, mostly man-made, combine to form ozone.
Ozone in the troposphere is formed by the interaction of sunlight with oxygen and other atmospheric gases or with industrial pollutants.