The systemic physiological response to food needs must be allowed to "work".
The systemic physiological response to food needs must be allowed to "work".
In the case of a decrease in blood glucose, they send impulses through the appropriate neurons to the hypothalamus, which forms a feeling of hunger.
In addition to glucoreceptors, sensations of hunger can form thermoreceptors. Therefore, in the case of lower ambient temperature in warm-blooded food consumption increases. This has a certain biological requirement — maintaining the required body temperature in cold weather usually requires additional energy from the body. This energy is released due to the additional breakdown of glucose.
In addition to the above, the primary impulse to form a feeling of hunger can come directly from the brain cells, which are activated due to a given diet (rhythmic consumption of food, the duration of intervals between meals, qualitative and quantitative composition).
The desire to eat is called appetite. Its formation can also occur without the participation of glucoreceptors: through a visual analyzer (in the form of food), through an olfactory analyzer (for the smell of food), even through an auditory analyzer (when talking about something delicious), and so on.
There is a concept of specific appetite, aimed at consuming certain foods. For example, in the absence of certain salts in the body, there may be a specific appetite "I want something salty." However, the preference for certain dishes may arise as a result of upbringing or cultural traditions.
Information from receptors through peripheral neurons enters the food center — a functional association of nerve elements located at different levels of the central nervous system.
The main element of the food center is the hypothalamus. There is a transformation of the internal nutritional needs of the body in the process of nervous excitement. Studies by V. Anand have shown that electrical irritation of the lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus leads to increased food intake, even in fed animals. The destruction of this part of the hypothalamus, on the contrary — leads to a refusal to eat.
The food excitation that occurs in the hypothalamus extends in an ascending direction to the subcortical limbic and reticular structures of the brain and the cortex of the large hemispheres.
PK Anokhin and KV Sudakov formed a neurophysiological theory of hunger, according to which, by reducing the level of nutrients in the body due to nervous and humoral signaling, the food centers of the lateral part of the hypothalamus are excited. They begin to cause an increased effect on the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, forming the motivation for hunger and behavior aimed at obtaining food.
The process of food absorption ends long before glucose is restored. The saturation process consists of two phases. The first phase — sensory saturation develops due to the action of food on the receptors of the oral cavity and stomach. Excitation from receptors through peripheral neurons reaches the cells of the ventromedial part of the hypothalamus and inhibits the cells of its lateral part. As a result of the above processes there is a decrease in the activating effect on the cortex of the large hemispheres.
The feeling of satiety is always accompanied by stress relief and positive emotions due to the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Experienced managers use this fact to form communication channels. Preliminary negotiations or negotiations on intentions will usually have better results if both parties are in a positive mood.
Relieving tension and forming a positive emotional background can ensure such negotiations in the restaurant.
Those communication management manuals that advise to explain the essence of the case before serving the main course — are not friendly to physiology. The systemic physiological response to food needs must be allowed to "work". All events will be useful here. The more receptors are connected — the faster and stronger you can activate the parasympathetic nervous system.
Therefore it is not necessary to neglect neither light music, nor a kind of food, nor an interior of restaurant. Since, according to our national customs, the inviting party pays the bill, it is she who is most interested in the result of the meeting, so the menu is her privilege. It is necessary to study the tastes of the guests and possible restrictions on food. This is fundamental, because a diabetic who has denied himself (or worse, if not) a cake has denied himself positive emotions.
So why should he consider the needs of your company? You need to start the main negotiations only after the guest’s favorite dish, when the guest is physiologically ready to make a positive decision.
And a number of problems of personnel management related to the physiological mechanisms of hunger and satiety. Because there are many glucoreceptors in the human body, their activation, which occurs in the period preceding starvation, extends to other cells of the nervous system. This is due to the processes of irradiation * of nervous excitation. That is, the time before the lunch break for most employees is the most productive time for creative, and not only creative, work.
Conversely — after a lunch break — systemic physiological processes direct the body to rest. In the last century, physiologists have calculated that for the active work of all organs and systems, the body needs about 20 liters of blood saturated with oxygen. This is against the 3.5-5.0 liters that an adult has.
Regulation of the body is designed so that the blood is redistributed, depending on the needs of the body, in those systems where it is most needed. In the case after eating — in the gastrointestinal tract. That is, neither the muscles nor the cortex of the large hemispheres (the working organs of our staff) receive sufficient oxygen. What productivity can you expect?
Employees of the health department at our state administrations, who have extensive bureaucratic experience, say that when sofas were removed from offices during Mikhail Gorbachev’s time, problems with the gastrointestinal tract of office owners increased sharply. Previously, they had enough lunch break to eat and rest on the couch.
The work of a manager, manager or entrepreneur, businessman is intense, causing acute stress, sometimes chronic conditions. Of course, in a person who has the appropriate genotype for this type of activity, adaptive mechanisms are involved in relieving hormonal stress.
However, they have limitations and when they are depleted, there is a period of functional disorders that precede the onset of stress diseases. Which of these diseases "chooses" a particular organism of the manager — is the problem of his genotype and lifestyle, food culture in particular. To avoid stomach ulcers, lunch with hot dishes and rest on the couch for an entrepreneur who works 10-12 hours a day is not the last thing.
Feelings of hunger occur periodically, so the basic need to receive and consume food is constant. It is impossible to satisfy her once and for all. However, it coexists well with other needs of the body. In a normal diet, the feeling of hunger, which is periodically felt by everyone, does not interfere with the social needs of self-realization, power or affiliation.
However, it should be noted that most people who have experienced prolonged starvation have a reduced ability to make risky decisions. That is, it can be assumed that prolonged starvation, on a general negative emotional background, leaves a certain structural mark in the cortex of the large hemispheres of the human brain.
Management theory and practice advise to pay attention to the employee’s need to purchase and consume food. As a rule, this is solved by a set of material motivations:
material incentives; social bonuses — in many companies there is free meals for employees either directly in the office or in a cafe located nearby.
There are companies that introduce a custom cooking system.
Another intangible incentive used to build a company’s team spirit is corporate holidays.
Delicious food is consumed, the parasympathetic nervous system is activated, the mood improves, and the employee sitting opposite, with whom a tense relationship has arisen, seems to be his boyfriend. You can even resolve a personal conflict and find a solution to the production. Or at least there may be an intention to establish a normal relationship.
Physiological mechanisms of thirst. Thirst is a common sensation that results from the combined action of many types of receptors located both on the periphery and in the human brain. The main nerve structures responsible for the regulation of water-salt balance are located in the diencephalon, in the hypothalamus. Osmoreceptors are located on the cells of the anterior nuclei of the hypothalamus.
They are activated when the intracellular concentration of salts increases, ie when the cells lose water. Therefore, osmoreceptors are called thirst receptors. In addition to osmoreceptors, other receptors in the mouth and pharynx are involved in the formation of thirst. Their activation causes a feeling of dryness in the mouth. Receptors on the walls of large veins also join the complex of thirst receptors.
The basic physiological principles of thirst are united by the theory of multiple factors. Thirst for it may be due to increased osmotic blood pressure and intracellular dehydration. In the cells of the hypothalamus, as well as internal organs, specific receptors are detected that respond to changes in osmotic blood pressure.
Excitation of these receptors leads to a state of activation of those parts of the brain that are part of the drinking center. A feeling of thirst and motivational behavior aimed at its satisfaction is formed. At the same time, the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus are excited and the flow of antidiuretic hormone into the blood increases, which helps the body conserve water resources.
There is no adaptation to the feeling of thirst. The only way to quench your thirst is water. The body of an adult contains about 75% water. If a person weighing 70 animal farm george orwell summary kg loses only 350 ml of water — there is a feeling of thirst.
These data indicate the need to provide water and beverages to company employees. Ukrainian companies that value staff do things differently. Drinking water from artesian wells and mineral water are imported. Tea and coffee machines are installed in the company’s corridors for visitors.